The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Medico-Legal Report

Learning how to write a medico legal report can be a complex and challenging task, however, writing medico legal reports and providing independent expert medical opinion can also be rewarding undertakings.

Medico legal reports play a critical role in legal proceedings, helping the courts make informed decisions on cases that involve medical issues, and they are also used in personal injury claims, insurance disputes, and clinical negligence cases.

This article will provide you with information on the qualifications needed to craft such reports, the types of reports you may be asked to draft, and the ethical considerations that must be taken into account. With this information, you’ll have the skills necessary to produce concise, accurate medical and legal reports.

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Who can write medico legal report?

Writing medico-legal reports requires expertise, knowledge, and an understanding of ethical and legal frameworks. In the UK, only qualified healthcare professionals with at least 10 years’ clinical practice can provide such reports. Experts must be knowledgeable in their fields and be aware of their professional and ethical obligation to provide factual information to the courts.

When asked to write a report, it’s important to only comment on areas of one’s specialty in order to ensure accuracy and reliability. Doing so will guarantee the quality of the report, thereby making it useful evidence in legal proceedings.

What’s important to know before writing a medico legal report

As a new medico-legal expert, it’s essential to understand the rules and guidelines pertaining to the use of expert evidence in civil court proceedings in England and Wales, as well as understanding and working within good medical practice guidelines. Being objective and unbiased is crucial for independent medical experts, as they need to provide clear and concise opinions that address the key issues in the case while taking into account any potential factors that could affect their opinions.

Experts should be aware of the expert witness code and review the Expert Witness Institute and the Academy of Experts Joint Code of Conduct and ensure they fully understand legal obligations when providing medico-legal reports.

Medical expert witnesses in England and Wales must follow the Civil Procedure Rules Part 35 and its accompanying Practice Direction when providing reports for civil court proceedings. This guidance outlines their role, selection criteria, duties, and other information needed to ensure their reports are reliable and relevant in achieving a fair outcome.

Key contents include:

Appointment and Instruction of Experts

Guidelines for ensuring that experts are appropriately instructed and that their reports are reliable and relevant.

Duties of Experts

Experts must provide objective and unbiased evidence and comply with the rules of the court. They are expected to be independent of the parties involved in the proceedings to avoid any risk of bias.

Format and Content of Reports

This includes outlining specific issues that need to be addressed, providing clear and concise opinions, and disclosing qualifications, experience, or other factors that may affect the expert’s opinion.

Alternative Dispute Resolution:

Experts may be called upon to provide evidence to help resolve any dispute or to attend mediation.

Read the Civil Procedure Rules in full.

Understanding the different types of medico-legal reports

There are several different types of medico-legal reports that you may be asked to write. These include reports for personal injury claims, clinical negligence, and medical malpractice. Each type of report requires a different approach, and it is important to understand the purpose and scope of the report before you begin writing. The most common reports provided by NRC include:

Causation Reports

Causation reports are used to provide an expert opinion on the cause of an injury or illness and its impact on the claimant. In personal injury and medical negligence claims, it can be crucial to comprehend how an illness or injury developed and the consequences of the defendant’s actions.


Condition & Prognosis Reports

Condition & Prognosis Reports  are used to provide an expert opinion on the current condition of a claimant and any likely future impact. These reports are commonly used in personal injury claims to determine how much compensation may be due.


Life Expectancy Reports

Life Expectancy Reports are used to provide an expert opinion on the life expectancy of a claimant. These reports can be important in determining the value of claims for loss of earnings or dependency and are commonly used in fatal accident cases.


How to write a medico-legal report

When writing a medico-legal report, it is important to follow a structured approach in this suggested format that provides clear and concise information. Writing the perfect medico-legal report requires a combination of medical expertise, meticulous organisation, and clear communication.

By following our guidelines, you can ensure you are writing reports that are comprehensive, clear, and objective, that effectively communicate your expert opinion, and that contribute to a fair resolution of the case.

Preparing to write a medico legal report

  • Keep in mind that your medico-legal report may be used as evidence in court, and as such, opinions expressed in the report may be publicly tested and challenged during cross-examination
  • Seek advice if you are unsure of any part of the instruction
  • Obtain all necessary medical records and medical information in advance
  • Ensure you have the patient’s permission to write a report
  • Confirm the ID of the person you are speaking to
  • Use tailored questionnaires to capture all relevant information

Writing the medico legal report


Organise your report into clear sections, including an introduction, medical history and overview of medical records, examination findings, opinions, and conclusions.

At the start of the report, include any credentials, including your professional address, qualifications, experience, and position, the patient’s name and date of birth, and the requesting party’s name and the date of the request. The report should include an introduction that provides background information on the patient’s condition and instructions from the instructing party.

Reports should be organised in chronological order with clearly numbered pages. Use a professional format and layout with clear headings, subheadings, and numbered paragraphs. This makes your report easier to read and reference.


  • Present your findings impartially, without bias towards any party. Your duty is to the court, not the instructing party.
  • Do not record the patient’s history of events as ‘fact.’ Patients often have varying degrees of perception and memory which can lead to accounts that are not entirely accurate. Instead, present your opinion on any injuries suffered within your clinical judgement.
  • Thoroughly address all relevant issues and questions raised by the instructing party. Provide a detailed account of your examination, including the methods used and observations made.
  • Be detailed in your description of injuries or conditions. Base your opinions on up-to-date medical knowledge and research. Support your conclusions with relevant literature and case law where appropriate.
  • Be concise but thorough. Omitting or misstating material facts can significantly impact the strength of the evidence presented.
  • Maintain a consistent line of reasoning throughout your report. Ensure that your conclusions logically follow from the evidence presented. When providing evidence, it is important to be transparent about the limits of your knowledge and not to express opinions beyond those limits.
  • Make it clear that your opinions are independent of any external influence, and that you have not been swayed by the instructing party.
  • Maintain patient confidentiality by anonymising personal information where required and adhering to data protection regulations.


Ensure your writing is easy to understand for non-medical professionals. Use concise, straightforward language; avoid medical jargon and overly technical terms. Explain medical abbreviations and avoid emotive language.

Accuracy and Proofreading

Ensure all details are correct, including dates, patient information, and medical history. Double-check your facts and proofread your report for errors. A proofreading service is provided by NRC to help maintain the highest level of accuracy and professionalism in your medico-legal reports.

Submitting your report

Provide your report to the requesting party within an agreed reasonable time frame.

Medico-legal report examples and templates

As part of our commitment to providing high-quality services to our members, we offer medico-legal report examples that can help members understand the layout, structure, and content of these reports. By reviewing these examples, members can gain a better understanding of the requirements for medico-legal reports and ensure that their own reports meet the highest standards of quality and accuracy.

To request a medico-legal report example, members can contact our team, and we will be happy to provide the necessary materials.

Become a medical expert witness

If you are a medical professional with the necessary qualifications and expertise and are interested in becoming a medical expert, NRC can help. As a leading provider of medico-legal services in the UK, we are always looking for qualified medical professionals to join our team of experts.

Our team of experts will be happy to provide you with more information on giving opinion and answer any questions you may have about the process.

Join NRC Medical Experts

Instruct an expert witness

If you are a solicitor in need of an expert to write a medico-legal report, NRC is a  leading provider of medico-legal services in the UK. You can be confident that you are working with a team of qualified and experienced medical professionals who can provide clear and concise reports that meet the highest standards of quality and accuracy.

Our experts have experience in a wide range of neurological specialties, from brain and spinal injury to brachial plexus injury and amputation, and we can provide reports for a range of circumstances.

Search our expert witness database or contact us today.